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This post is an attempt to keep track of the terms that differ between dialects of English or exist in some dialects but not others: British / Australian / Canadian / American / etc.
Please note that Canada may be difficult to classify, as some regions (especially near the southern border) use US terms, while others may use UK terms.
Also see What international cooking terms sound similar but have different meanings? for similar issues with other languages.
Eggplant (US, AU) is an aubergine (UK). Summer Squash (US) are members of the squash family with a short storage life typically harvested before full maturity; typically available starting in the spring and summer; includes zucchini, yellow and crookneck squash. Winter Squash (US) are members of the squash family that are allowed to reach full maturity before harvesting; typically available in the fall; includes pumpkin, acorn and butternut squash. also note that squash may refer to a drink (see “cordial”) Arugula (US) is rocket (UK, AU). Rutabaga (US) is swede (UK, AU), but also called turnip, Swedish turnip or neep in some parts of the UK, particularly Scotland. (Wikipedia) Enpe (US) is chicory (Belgium, perhaps others). Pepper (US) (note the singular) refers to black peppercorns unless otherwise qualified. Red pepper (US, note the singular) refers to dried, red chilies (typically cayenne) that has been dried and ground or crushed. Seaweed (US) has many names based on type of plant, including Kombu (Japan), Nori (Japan), Laver (Wales), and many others. See (edible seaweed) Legumes (US) are pulses (UK). ‘Legume’ may refer to the plant and not the seeds (lentils, beans, etc). Boiling potatoes (US) are waxy potatoes (UK, US). This refers to low-starch potatoes that don’t fall apart when cooked. Sometimes called roasting potatoes (US). New potatoes behave like waxy potatoes, even if they come from a variety used for baking. Runner Beans (UK) are green beans or string beans (US, CA) (Farmhouse Cookery). UK also has green beans and stringless beans, but neither is the same as runner beans. Broad Beans (UK, AU) are fava beans, butter beans or lima beans (US, CA) (Farmhouse Cookery) Spring onions (AK, AU, CA), Scallions (US), and green onions may not always be the same thing, but can typically be substituted for each other. (more details). Cilantro (US) is known as Coriander (UK, AU), and it tends to refer to the leaf, unless qualified as coriander seed. May be qualified as fresh coriander or green coriander. Ground coriander is always the seed. Coriander (US) refers to the seed. Chili powder (US) is a spice mixture for seasoning chili con carne. Chili powder contains mainly ground chili peppers (eg, cayenne), onion powder, garlic powder and cumin. Mixtures vary, and often include oregano, black pepper, paprika and/or salt. Chili powder (UK) is pure ground chili peppers. In the US, it is usually qualified with a variety of chili and includes an “e” such as “New Mexico chilie powder” or “Ancho chilie powder”. (See also “red pepper”, above.) (see also ‘peppercorns’ for a discussion of ‘black pepper’, under the discussion of ‘pepper’ in Fruits & Vegetables) Cookies (US, CA) are biscuits (UK, AU, NZ). Biscuits (US, CA) are similar to a scone (UK, AU, NZ), and usually neither sweet nor savory. Note: bisquit (Germany, no plural) is sponge cake (US). Graham Crackers (US) are roughly analogous to Digestive biscuits in the UK (both may be used to make a crust or dessert base, for example). Scone (US, CA) tends to be sweeter than a scone (UK). Sponge cake is a term for the lighter range of “typical” cake in both US and UK. However, since the range of cakes typically baked varies between the US and UK, in British usage one finds “sponges” that are heavier and denser than what an American would call a “sponge”. See this answer for further discussion. Pancake (US, CA) Pikelet (AU, NZ) generally refers to puffy items made from a thick leavened batter but generally smaller than an American pancake. (AU may use ‘pancake’ for items larger than “silver dollar pancakes”). Pancake can go by a number of names in the US, including hotcakes, griddlecakes, flapjacks and hoecakes. Flapjack (US) is the same thing as a (US) pancake. But flapjack (UK) is a baked square usually consisting of sugar/honey, butter, and oats. Frosting (US) is icing (UK, CA, AU, NZ). In the US, frosting typically has air whipped into it, while icing (US) doesn’t and dries harder. Turnover (US) or hand pie (US) is pasty/pastie (ˈpas-tē) (UK, NZ). (Pasties (ˈpās-tēz) in the US are coverings to comply with nudity laws in strip clubs.) Turnover (UK) is a puff pastry shell, usually triangular, filled with fruit and whipped cream. In Australia, pasty is usually a meat and vegetable filled pastry, while a similar fruit-filled items is a turnover Flan (AU) is a sweet pastry tart, usually containing custard and fruit. plain flour (UK, AU) is all-purpose flour (US) (aka ‘AP flour’ or just ‘AP’ on cooking shows) unless otherwise qualified (eg, ‘plain, strong flour’) in which case it just means ‘not self-rising’. Note that AP flour in the US South (eg, White Lily brand) tends to be softer than northern and national brands of AP flour (eg, King Arthur, Gold Medal, Pillsbury). self-rising flour (US) is available in the US, but less common. It is referred to as self-raising flour in the UK, AU and NZ. Although it has baking powder in it, it does not have fat in it such as Bisquick or other ‘baking mixes’.
UK Self-raising flour does not contain salt. Apparently US self-rising flour does.
wholemeal flour (UK) is whole wheat flour (US)
Light Cream (CA) has 5% butterfat. Light Cream (US) is 18 to 30% butterfat. ( Lite Cream (AU) is roughly 18% butterfat)
Table Cream (CA) is 15% or 18% butterfat.
Single cream (UK) is 18% butterfat. Equivalent to Lite Cream (AU), Thickened Cream – Reduced Fat (AU), Table Cream (CA), Coffee Cream (CA). Extra Thick Single Cream (UK) contains stabilizers.
Cream (US) with 5% butterfat is Single cream (UK), while cream with 48% butterfat (US) is double cream in the UK.
Cooking Cream (CA (Quebec)) is either 15% or 35% butterfat, thickened with stabilizers and emulsifiers
Country-Style Cream (CA (Quebec)) is either 15% or 35% butterfat, with stabilizers and emulsifiers
Whipping Cream (CA) is 33 to 35% butterfat, and may have stabilizers. Equivalent to Thickened Cream (AU), Pouring Cream (AU) or Single Cream (AU). Whipping Cream (US) may be from 30 to 36% milkfat.
Buttermilk (US, modern usage, aka ‘cultured buttermilk’) is a fermented product, basically a runny yogurt, while historically buttermilk is the liquid left over after churning butter. Historic buttermilk made with fresh milk is closer to today’s skim milk, but if made with sour milk is closer to cultured buttermilk.
powdered sugar or confectioners sugar (US) is icing sugar (UK, CA, NZ) or icing sugar mixture (AU); contains cornstarch (~3%) as an anti-clumping agent. icing sugar (AU), aka pure icing sugar does not have starch in it. superfine sugar (US, CA) is caster sugar (UK, NZ, AU); may also be called berry sugar (CA), fruit sugar (CA), bar sugar, castor sugar, instant dissolving sugar, ultrafine sugar, fondant sugar, or extra fine sugar. sanding sugar (US) is pearl sugar (CA). (size between coarse sugar & granulated sugar) unless otherwise qualified, sugar (US, CA) is granulated sugar
entree (US) is the main course. Entree (AU, NZ) is a starter course, or appetizer (US) course. ( ref)
dessert (US, AU) is pudding, sweets, dessert or afters (UK, depending on region and social class). Pudding is always a cooked item, while dessert may be fresh fruit or other non-cooked item.
jelly (US) is seedless jam (UK, NZ) (see answer below for details)
fries (US, abbr. for french fries) are chips (UK, NZ); both terms work in AU, as does hot chips
chips (UK) are steak fries (US), rather than the typical American shoestring fries
corn flour (US; aka fine corn meal) is maize flour (AU), a finer ground version of cornmeal (US,UK) or polenta (US,UK). Cornflour (UK) is the extracted starch derived from the raw corn kernal, not the dry ground flesh of the whole kernal. Also called masa harina (US) if made from nixtamalized corn.
cornflour (AU) is a powdered starch, but not necessarily made from corn, as there is also ‘wheaten cornflour’. ( ref)
cider (US) is unfiltered (cloudy) juice, commonly from apples, while cider (UK, NZ) is an alcoholic beverage made from apple juice (aka. hard cider (US) or scrumpy (UK) for stronger dry ciders). cider (AU) refers to both the alcoholic beverage and any non-alcoholic carbonated apple juice.
cordial is a liquid drink flavoring that is intended to be diluted with water. ( ref)
liquid smoke (US) is condensed smoke, used as a flavoring.
black beer (UK) is a malt liquor/fortified wine containing malt.
tomato sauce (UK, AU, NZ) is ketchup (UK, US). Also catsup and other spelling variants.
tomato sauce (UK, US) is a tomato based sauce typically for pasta or pizza.
marinara (US) is used synonymously with tomato sauce, and may refer to both quick or long-cooked varieties.
golden syrup (UK, NZ) is dark cane sugar syrup (US, CA); corn syrup is an acceptable substitute ( Farmhouse Cookery)
vegetable oil (US, AU) is any flavorless oil with a decent smoke point. It may be soy, corn, or a blend, but you can use peanut (groundnut (UK)), canola (rapeseed (UK)), or extra light ( not extra virgin) olive oil.
oats (US) unless qualified are ‘old fashioned’ or ‘rolled oats’, not groats (which are sold as ‘pinhead oats’), ‘Steel cut oats’ (cut up groats but not flattened, aka. ‘Irish oatmeal’), nor ‘instant oats’ (flattened & parcooked).
trail mix (US) is a mixture of nuts and dried fruit. It may include granola, seeds (eg. sunflower) or chocolate (typically in the form of M&Ms)
Smarties (UK, AU) are similar to the candy M&Ms
Smarties (US) are compssed sugar pellets (similar to PEZ tablets, but round with concave sides, packaged in rolls with twisted ends)
Fried egg in the UK is what Americans call sunny-side up unless otherwise qualified. The US terms over-easy, over-medium, over-well and over-hard are typically unknown in the UK. For a definition of the ‘over’ terms, see Can someone please give an explanation of different egg pparations? . ( more details )
Casserole (US) is a bake (UK,US) or hotdish (US), and refers to any mixture of food baked in a casserole dish (sometimes shortened to simply casserole), an oven-safe, relatively deep, typically ceramic vessel. A casserole (US) is typically not as wet as a stew. It includes dishes that are composed of p-cooked ingredients and then mixed or layered in a suitable vessel and baked to finish. ( ref)
broiling (US) is grilling (AU, UK) which is cooking with heat from above as in some ovens or restaurant salamanders. grilling (US) is barbecuing (AU, UK) which is cooking with heat from below, typically on a metal rack over a vessel of burning wood or charcoal, or a gas burner. barbecuing (US) is slow cooking using wood or charcoal to impart smoke to the food. This sense is also sometimes used in AU. barbeque (US) (sometimes abbreviated BBQ) may refer to the either food cooked through barbequeing, or the device on which it is cooked. teaspoon (US,UK, CA) is 5 mL (note: abbreviated ‘t’ or ‘tsp’) dessert spoon (UK) is 10 mL (although may have historically been closer to 15mL) tablespoon (US,CA) is roughly 15 mL (note: abbreviated ‘T’, ‘TB’, or ‘tbsp’) but a tablespoon (UK) is 17.7mL and tablespoon (AU) is 20 mL. Historical British cookbooks may use an ~25mL tablespoon. (more details). A stick of butter (US) is 1/4 lb (113 g); the physical stick is marked into eight “tablespoon” pisions [slightly larger than an actual tablespoon, roughly 14g each] A knob of butter (UK) is somewhere around 2 TB (US), but is an inexact measure. A pat of butter (US) is between 1 and 2 tsp (5 to 10 mL), most commonly 48 per lb, or ~1.5 tsp. (~9.5 grams, 7.5mL) A cup (US) for cooking is a fixed measure of ~236mL (8 fluid ounces, 16 TB, 1/2 a US pint); A British Imperial cup is 1/2 of an Imperial pint (~284mL) Other countries may use a 225mL ‘cup’ or 250mL ‘metric cup’ (AU, and some regions of CA?) A cup of coffee or tea (when measuring electric kettles) may be based on 5 or 6 oz ‘cups’. Always look for the volume in mL or L when buying such items. A cup of uncooked rice (for rice cooker instructions) is 175mL, roughly 3/4 of a US cup. A pint (UK, AU) is 20 Imperial fluid ounces (568.261 mL), while a pint (US) is 16 fluid ounces (473.176 mL). A gas mark (UK) refers to the dials on some British gas ovens (Farmhouse Cookery). The marks from 1 to 9 correspond roughly to 275 – 475 °F (at 25 °F intervals) or 140 – 250 °C (at 10 °C intervals) (more detail below) A tin (UK) of tomatoes is the sized tin can (in US, just called a “can”) that it’s typically sold in. For many vegetables, this is a 400mL / ~14oz container, but is not a constant (for example, anchovies or tomato paste). (ref; see below) Unless otherwise qualified, assume an egg is about 60 grams. (a ‘large egg‘ (US,CA), but a ‘medium egg‘ in Europe). (ref)
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